PUGLIA, LAND OF ROSATI
THE TERRITORY, THE VINES, THE DENOMINATIONS
Our region, thanks to its microclimates given by its amazing biodiversity, has about 25 autochthonous and historical grapes, with which to vinify in red, white and rosé. The reasons for this so varied differentiation of Vitis Vinifera is to be found in its origins. The incessant action of water on the limestone, the main component of the soil, has given rise since prehistoric times to deep incisions in the rock bank (our Gravines) greenhouses and fossil beds of ancient rivers. It is an area that alternates the characteristic vegetation of the Mediterranean maquis with woods of various kinds (such as the lush Umbrian forest), surrounded by the two Ionian and Adriatic seas.
The Apulian territory is mainly flat (53%) and hilly (45%) and extends for over 350 km between the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea. It is thanks to the characteristics of the soil, mainly calcareous-clayey, that it is possible to make structured wines, with a nice tannic texture, but also elegant, characterized by a good acidity well balanced with roundness, and equipped with an amazing set of aromas.
From north to south, we can divide Puglia into macro areas, each with characteristic soils:
- The Capitanata, the northernmost part of Apulia, covers two main areas: the Gargano and the Tavoliere. In particular, the vineyards are distributed on the slopes exposed limestone promontory of eruptive rocks. Here, with the rocky slopes that slope towards the Adriatic, we find a sedimentary mother rock that gives wines great minerality and a powerful structure.
- The Tavoliere delle Puglie is a gentle plain composed of alluvial soils of sand and clay. In the vast Tavoliere the soils are mainly alluvial, red wines are produced with intense, complex aromas, but also pleasing and fresh, with delicate chromatic nuances.
- Murgia, composed of rocky agglomerations rich in limestone, which give rise to compact and deep wines; the remarkable temperature ranges and calcareous-clay or siliceous-clay soils, lead to fresh rose wines of good elegance . On the coasts between the Murge and the Adriatic, the tufaceous and sandy soils are the habitat of the Muscat royal.
- Salento, the place of the Red Lands. The soil here is in fact composed of a mix of limestone and clay, which give strength to renowned rose from Negroamaro, exceptional wines and suitable for aging.
- Climate: Typically Mediterranean climate, with mild winters and little rain and hot summers, ventilated and dry, which favor the production of structured and intensely colored wines. In Puglia there is minimal rainfall throughout the peninsula, however compensated by good humidity and a windy cycle that naturally preserve the grapes from the attack of fungi and diseases. The Mediterranean Sea and its mountainous areas act as climate mitigating the Region, making the climate milder and conducive to healthy growth of bunches. In addition, the light that affects them stimulates photosynthesis chlorophyll, allowing the berries to be enriched with sugars and aromatic substances, the same ones that give our rose wines those amazing aromas.
The Apulian vineyard covers about 83,000 hectares, distributed mainly in the plains (70%) and hills (29.5%). The soil of Apulia gives life to vines with aromatic grapes, elegant, which vary by type and methods of winemaking. But it is in the production of rose wines that our black grape varieties find their maximum expression, giving life to structured wines, deep, rich in aromas. Not only, therefore, excellent for openings, but they are also a perfect combination to dine with fish dishes, pizza, focaccia and white meat.
Let’s see them together:
NON-INDIGENOUS AND INTERNATIONAL GRAPE VARIETIES
- Sangiovese (17.0% of Apulian grape varieties)
- Montepulciano (9.1% of Apulian grape varieties): traditionally used to dissolve the tannic strength of Troia and Negroamaro grapes, it is sometimes used in purity especially in the central-northern area of Puglia, where from wines of very intense color, with aromas of black cherry and cherry, jams, followed by hints of leather and spices.
- Merlot, Cabernet, Sauvignon, Syrah, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, Malbec: they are often used as “improving” vines, used in the cuts.
THE MAGIC HAPPENS - VINIFICATION
The first technique allows to obtain wines with clear and delicate nuances, slight hints of peach flowers, jasmine and violet and red fruits. To obtain it, the contact between the grapes and the must during the pressing must be very short, to avoid the solubilization in the liquid of all the pigmenting substances of the pomace (tannins and anthocyanins).
The second technique provides for a longer maceration time on the skins (maximum 24 hours), as a result of which the mostofiore is vinified using the method used for white wine. This process allows the wine to be enriched with more intense nuances and a little more robust structure, however remaining fresh and light.
The third method has a curious name: “bleeding”, from the French “saigne”. Here the juice of the bunches is left to macerate on the skins for 24 hours, then to be taken and divided by the latter before the beginning of fermentation; at this point, therefore, the light pink liquid will be vinified as if it were a white, while the remaining part is left to macerate and ferment on the skins to obtain a red wine.
APULIA WINES - DEOMINAZIONI DOCG, DOP AND IGP
DOC and DOCG rosé wines in Puglia
With its more than 400 km of coastline, Puglia has 26 Appellations of Origins (DOC and DOCG) and 5 IGT (Puglia, Daunia, Murgia, Valle d’Itria and Salento), thanks to its varied microclimates that make it a land particularly suited to viticulture.
- Ortanova DOC Rosé comes from the grapes: Sangiovese (min 60%) Uva di Troia and Montepulciano (20-30%), Lambrusco Maestri and Trebbiano Toscano (maximum 10%).
- For the DOC San Severo Rosato we have instead: Montepulciano and Sangiovese (maximum 10%).
- In the DOCG Castel del Monte Bombino Nero Rosato we have: Bombino Nero plus other varieties for a maximum percentage of 30%.
- For the DOC Castel del Monte, there is also the Denomination for the Aglianico Rosato DOC Castel Del Monte, which provides at least 90% of Aglianico grapes.
- DOC Gioia del Colle: Primitivo (50-60%), Malvasia Nera (maximum 10%), Montepulciano, Sangiovese and Negroamaro (40-50%).
- For the DOC Colline Joniche the disciplinary foresees the use of: Cabernet Sauvignon (minimum 50%), and other non-aromatic black grape varieties admitted to the cultivation from the viticultural zone Salento Arco Jonico.
- Moving further south, we find the DOC of Salento, where our rose was born. These include the municipalities of: Salice Salentino, Brindisi, Lizzano, Squinzano, Alezio, Copertino, Galatina, Leverano, Matino and Nardò. In each of the areas mentioned, the denomination is allowed only with the impego of Negroamaro grapes (in purity or in predominant quantity), with the contribution of other varieties such as Malvasia Nera, Sangiovese, Montepulciano, Bombino Nero.
The Wine Areas Doc and Igt
In Puglia there are some important wine-growing areas: